Getting shorter with age is not as simple as hunchback. It’s likely to be the last call from the spine: a sign that your bones are becoming “brittle” and that you’ve even had a spinal fracture. < / P > < p > October 20 of each year is world Osteoporosis Day, which reminds the public to pay attention to bone health. Today, we would like to invite orthopedic experts to talk with you about the danger signals of osteoporosis, and present a treasure book of “healthy bone” for different groups of people. Osteoporotic fracture is a serious consequence of osteoporosis and a major cause of disability and early death. Worldwide, osteoporosis causes 8.9 million fractures a year. When the bone itself becomes very fragile due to quality problems, even a very slight external force may cause fracture. Vertebral fracture caused by a cough is not alarmist. < / P > < p > “I think osteoporosis is the real reason for short height and hunchback. Outpatient often encountered such an old man, she was 160 cm tall, now approaching 155 cm, examination found that there are multiple spinal fractures. Some patients even came to see a doctor with 12 vertebral fractures. ” Zhang Zhenlin, chairman of the osteoporosis and bone mineral salt Disease Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, said that for the “shrinkage” of height, many patients thought that they were getting older and hunchback. Besides, I didn’t wrestle. I didn’t think about fracture at all. In fact, vertebral fracture is the most common fracture caused by osteoporosis, and more than 80% of fractures are related to the elderly. According to a community survey of 14000 residents given by Zhang Zhenlin, 17% of men and women over the age of 60 have fractures, and they never see a doctor. However, there were more fractures in the subjects over 80 years old, and nearly 30% of them had more than two vertebrae. According to reports, if the vertebral body fracture after the effective treatment, fracture within three years as high as 50% – 80%. < p > < p > if the height of the elderly decreases by 2 cm within one year, they may have vertebral deformity or fracture, which should be paid attention to. Zhang Zhenlin suggested that height loss and low back pain are signs of need for medical treatment; the first bone mineral density test should be conducted after the age of 40 and once a year after the age of 50 to understand their bone mass level. Beijing Youth Daily learned from the Institute for chronic disease control and prevention of Beijing Center for Disease Control and prevention that osteoporotic fractures often occur in the hip, spine and wrist. In addition to vertebral fracture, the most common osteoporotic fracture, hip fracture is the most serious type of osteoporotic fracture, which often requires surgical treatment. After hip fracture, more than 20% of patients will die of various complications within one year, and 20% of patients will fracture again within one year. < p > < p > osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass, poor microstructure of bone tissue, and loose, fragile and unstable bone, which leads to increased risk of fracture. Experts from the Institute for chronic disease prevention and treatment said that before fracture, osteoporosis has no symptoms or signs, so it is difficult for us to feel its occurrence and development. We often know it only after the fracture occurs. Therefore, osteoporosis is also known as “silent disease”. < p > < p > osteoporosis can lead to low back pain or general bone pain, short height or hunchback, fracture and other problems. It is estimated that in people over 50 years of age, fractures caused by osteoporosis affect one third of women and one fifth of men, and bring heavy burden of care to families. < / P > < p > if the answer to any question is “yes”, it can be considered as a high-risk group of osteoporosis. It is recommended that you go to the osteoporosis specialist clinic to check and evaluate your bone health, early diagnosis, early prevention and early treatment. Experts from the Institute for chronic disease prevention and control said that from birth to early adulthood, bones are constantly growing and strengthening, reaching the peak of bone mass between 20 and 30 years old, and then gradually decreasing. Therefore, the prevention and control measures of different groups have their own emphasis. < / P > < p > bone protection in children and adolescents begins in childhood. It is very important for children and adolescents to improve peak bone mass by eating habits and regular physical activities that are beneficial to bone health. In adulthood, the lower the bone mass, the higher the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. For example, a 10% reduction in vertebral body bone mass doubles the risk of vertebral fracture, while a 10% reduction in hip bone mass increases the risk of hip fracture by 2.5 times. At the same time, teenagers should avoid smoking and drinking, and the drugs that affect bones should be used with caution. < / P > < p > during pregnancy and lactation, the excretion rate of calcium in pregnant and lactating women is increased, and calcium is provided to the fetus at the same time, resulting in the decrease of maternal bone mass and peak bone mass, which increases the risk of osteoporosis. For this part of the population, the main preventive measures are to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D. Postmenopausal women are at high risk of osteoporosis, and more than half of Chinese women over 65 years old have osteoporosis. This population should be regularly screened for osteoporosis risk factors and bone mineral density testing, osteoporosis should be treated as soon as possible, and the occurrence of falls and fractures should be prevented. Daily diet should pay attention to adequate intake of calcium and protein. The average daily sunshine should be 15 minutes to get enough vitamin D. moderate exercise and regular weight-bearing and muscle exercise should be carried out to maintain a healthy weight, avoid low weight and prevent falls. It should be reminded that the “movement” of postmenopausal women should avoid excessive bending, twisting, explosive weight-bearing or high impact load, and pay attention to posture, balance, coordination and stability of hip and trunk. In addition, medical treatment should be carried out according to the doctor’s advice when necessary. < / P > < p > the elderly have the highest risk of osteoporosis, and nearly 75% of hip, vertebral and wrist fractures occur in people aged 65 and above. In addition to the general preventive measures, the most important thing for the elderly is to prevent the occurrence of fractures, especially for the elderly. Therefore, we should avoid carrying, carrying or lifting heavy objects, sit ups, excessive turning, excessive bending and other actions to avoid falling. < / P > < p > men have a higher fracture related mortality than women. The incidence of male is more than 70 years old. Although the incidence rate is lower than that of women, the severity and mortality rate is higher than that of women. For the male population, in addition to the above general measures, especially should stop smoking, do not drink or moderate drinking.