Prevention of child obesity, start with mother

“The average annual growth rate of overweight and obesity rate from 2002 to 2017 should be taken as the baseline. The average annual growth rate of overweight and obesity rate of children and adolescents should be at the baseline%, so as to lay the foundation for realizing zero growth of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.” This is the goal put forward in the implementation plan for the prevention and control of obesity among children and adolescents jointly issued by the National Health Commission, the Ministry of education and the all China Women’s Federation on October 23. According to the report on nutrition and chronic diseases of Chinese residents in 2012, the overweight and obesity rates of school-age children and adolescents aged 6-17 in China reached 9.6% and 6.4% respectively, and showed a rapid upward trend. According to the current situation of overweight and obesity rates among children and adolescents in different regions, the program divides the provinces of China into three areas with high, medium and low prevalence levels, and defines the goal of reducing the annual growth rate of overweight and obesity rates among children and adolescents with different epidemic levels. China’s existing high prevalence provinces include Shaanxi, Beijing, Jilin, Tianjin, Shanxi, Shanghai, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Shandong and Hebei. The prevention and control goal of the plan is: from 2020 to 2030, the average annual growth rate of overweight and obesity rates of children and adolescents in high prevalence areas will be at the baseline%. < p > < p > childhood and adolescent obesity will affect life-long health, because it will increase the risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes and other chronic diseases, which not only threatens health, but also brings heavy burden to individuals, families and society. The plan points out that with the rapid development of China’s economy and society and the significant improvement of people’s living standards, profound changes have taken place in the dietary structure and lifestyle of children and adolescents. In addition, due to the heavy burden of school work and the popularity of electronic products, the phenomenon of unbalanced nutrition and insufficient physical activity is widespread among children and adolescents, and the rate of overweight and obesity is rising rapidly, which has become a threat to China Important public health problems of children and adolescents’ physical and mental health. < p > < p > < p > < p > the program proposed strengthening family responsibility, including helping children develop scientific diet behavior, cultivating children’s active physical activity habits, doing a good job in monitoring the weight and growth of children and adolescents, and strengthening community support. Zhao Wenhua, a researcher at the Institute of nutrition and health of China Center for Disease Control and prevention, also pointed out that the prevention of childhood obesity should start with mothers. Parents should not only monitor their children’s weight, but also set a good example for their children’s health. Because obesity is not an infectious disease, but the lifestyle and behavior of families, especially parents, will have a direct impact on children. Zhao Wenhua said: first of all, we should pay attention to the mother’s nutrition during pregnancy and maintain appropriate physical activity to ensure that the baby’s weight is normal at birth. Normal birth weight ranges from 2.5 kg to 4 kg. Secondly, after the baby is born, we should insist on breastfeeding as much as possible. Breast milk is not only the best food for children, but also the key measures to prevent baby obesity. Hu Xiaoqi, a researcher at the Institute of nutrition and health of China Center for Disease Control and prevention, believes that regular and nutritious diet and scientific and sufficient exercise are magic weapons for children and adolescents to maintain normal weight, and the key is to balance the two. The energy ratio of the three meals is appropriate and regular. To ensure that school-age children three meals a day, a variety of food, eat a meal to chew slowly. The interval between the two meals is appropriate, about 4-6 hours, so as to ensure the fixed time and quantity of three meals. Among them, breakfast accounts for 25% – 30% of the total energy, lunch accounts for 30% – 40%, and dinner accounts for 30% – 35%. Breakfast is very important and must be eaten every day. To ensure that the breakfast is nutritious, the food types include cereals and potatoes, livestock meat and eggs, milk or beans and their products, and fresh vegetables and fruits. At the same time, children should have a good lunch when they have enough food. The proper amount of food for dinner is less fat and easy to digest. Do not use pastry, sweets or snacks instead of three meals. Food to light, eat less high salt, high sugar and high fat fast food. Choose snacks reasonably, drink plenty of water, do not drink sugary drinks, and do not drink alcohol. School age children should choose healthy and nutritious foods as snacks, such as fruits and fresh vegetables that can be eaten raw, dairy products, soybeans and their products or nuts. Do not snack on fried, salty or sugary foods. A small amount of drinking water for many times, 800-1400 ml per day. School age children preferred boiled water, about an hour to drink, 200 ml each time, do not feel thirsty again. It is recommended not to drink or drink less sugary drinks. No drinking. No overeating, P < 4. School age children should not overeat and overeat to ensure proper weight growth. Malnutrition children should increase the intake of high-quality protein food such as fish, eggs, meat or bean products. Overweight and obese children should actively carry out physical activities on the basis of controlling total energy and reasonable diet. It is necessary to ensure appropriate exercise every day and increase outdoor activity time. School age children should increase outdoor activity time, at least 60 minutes a day, moderate intensity physical activity, mainly aerobic exercise, each time the best more than 10 minutes. High intensity physical activity, resistance exercise and bone strengthening exercise should be carried out at least 3 times a week. Learn or be good at at at least one sport. < p > < p > 6. They can be active anytime and anywhere, such as learning to walk, doing housework, etc. To reduce sedentary and long video time, remind children to get up for ten minutes every hour. It is better not to put TV and computer in the bedroom, reduce the use of mobile phones, computers and watching TV and other electronic products, and the video time should not exceed 2 hours a day. < p > < p > to help children develop scientific eating behavior, strengthen the concept that parents and caregivers are the first responsible person for children’s health, and improve the nutrition and health literacy of parents and caregivers are very important to reduce obesity in children and adolescents. At the same time, to create a good family sports atmosphere, actively guide children to carry out outdoor activities and physical exercise, is an important part of children to maintain normal weight. Parents and caregivers should fully understand the harm of overweight and obesity, regularly measure the height and weight of children, make records, and evaluate the growth and development of children and adolescents according to relevant standards. If necessary, consult professional institutions and take measures to intervene under the guidance of professionals. Although obesity is harmful to health, the harm of wrong weight loss can not be ignored. In recent years, it is popular not to eat staple food, low carbohydrate diet, ketogenic diet and vegetarian diet, which are unscientific for children and adolescents to lose weight. Experts pointed out that weight loss should not be done too quickly. First, it should be done step by step. Second, we should adhere to a healthy lifestyle for a long time and maintain a balance between eating and moving. This is the long-term solution to control overweight and obesity. It is not only the responsibility of every family and parents, but also the responsibility of schools, medical institutions and even the whole society to effectively curb the prevalence of overweight and obesity and promote the healthy growth of children and adolescents. The plan also proposes: < / P > < p > 1. To maintain the healthy weight of children and adolescents, we should do a good job in nutrition and health class, improve the food supply in school, and ensure the time of physical activity in school. If it is required to formulate guidelines for feeding in kindergartens and primary and secondary schools, schools shall be equipped with full-time nutrition and health management personnel. We should optimize the dietary structure of the students’ meals, improve the cooking methods, and provide foods that meet the nutritional needs of children and adolescents according to local conditions. It is required to ensure that the kindergarten children’s outdoor activity time is not less than 2 hours in normal weather conditions, and the sports activity time is not less than 1 hour. Primary and secondary school students should spend more than 1 hour of moderate or above intensity physical activity in school every day, and ensure at least 3 hours of high intensity physical activity per week. Strengthen the responsibility of medical and health institutions. We should optimize the weight management services, including strengthening the weight management during pregnancy, strengthening the weight management of children and adolescents, and strengthening the intervention for obese children. Medical and health institutions are encouraged to provide individualized nutrition and exercise prescriptions for overweight and obese children according to their needs; obese children with diseases should receive professional treatment under the guidance of doctors. Strengthen government responsibility. To strengthen the construction of supportive environment, including strengthening the popularization of obesity prevention and control knowledge and skills, strengthening food marketing management, and improving sports facilities for children and adolescents. Such as promoting the opening of public sports facilities free or low fees to children and adolescents, supporting primary and secondary school sports venues and facilities to be opened to children and adolescents in spare time and holidays, and encouraging sports venues to provide children and adolescents with sufficient drinking water free of charge and in line with national standards. We should strengthen the food label management for high sugar, high fat and high salt food.