Hypersonic weapon: explaining “only fast but not broken” with strength

In recent years, hypersonic weapons have become one of the focuses in the game of military strategy and equipment development of the world’s major powers. Many military experts believe that this kind of “revolutionary weapon”, which is quick and strong, will change the future war mode to a certain extent. < / P > < p > at present, the hypersonic weapons refer to the weapons which are based on hypersonic flight technology and whose flight speed is more than 5 times of the supersonic speed. In addition to all kinds of missiles, the more common view is that it also includes hypersonic guided shells, bombers, reconnaissance aircraft, etc. These weapons and equipment have the characteristics of fast flight speed, strong penetration ability, high strike precision, long sailing distance, great development potential and so on. It can be predicted that with the development of science and technology and the high attention of all countries, more hypersonic weapons will appear and play a role in the future battlefield. < / P > < p > at present, the world’s major military powers are competing fiercely in the field of hypersonic weapons, launching a number of hypersonic weapons research and development projects, and some projects have made major breakthroughs. In terms of hypersonic weapon research and development, Russia, the United States and other countries are still increasing investment. < / P > < p > Russia is the first country to install hypersonic weapons in batches, mainly including “pioneer” hypersonic boost glide missiles, “dagger” hypersonic missiles, “zircon” hypersonic cruise missiles, etc. < / P > < p > “pioneer” hypersonic boost glide missile is an intercontinental missile with hypersonic glide vehicle as warhead and intercontinental ballistic missile booster as power carrier. The maximum flight speed of warhead is said to exceed Mach 20, and it can carry nuclear warhead or conventional warhead. It is launched from a fixed launching shaft. The hypersonic gliding warhead can maneuver and change its orbit during flight, and has strong penetration ability. < / P > < p > “dagger” hypersonic missile takes MiG-31 fighter as carrier aircraft. After launching, it can fly at Mach 10 and can carry nuclear warheads and conventional warheads. According to the data released by Russia, “dagger” missiles have completed hundreds of flight training under various weather conditions, and 10 MiG-31 fighters carrying “dagger” missiles have entered the experimental combat duty. < / P > < p > “zircon” hypersonic cruise missile’s latest appearance was in October this year. The missile was launched by the Russian frigate “marshal Gorshkov” and successfully hit the target in the Barents Sea after flying about 450 km. It took 4.5 minutes. The maximum flight speed of zircon hypersonic cruise missile is Mach 8. The missile will be equipped on the heavy nuclear powered cruiser “Peter the great” and the nuclear powered missile cruiser “admiral nasimov” of Kirov class. It is said that submarine launched and air launched missiles will be developed in the future. < / P > < p > compared with Russia, the United States started earlier and invested a lot in the research and development of hypersonic weapons. It has been committed to project verification and key technology research, and has launched a number of technical projects, but has not yet listed hypersonic weapons. According to public information, India, Japan and other countries are also working intensively in this area. As a new weapon in the 21st century, hypersonic weapons have obvious advantages over conventional weapons, which may subvert the existing attack mode and traditional defense system and greatly expand the combat space. < / P > < p > subvert the existing attack methods. Hypersonic weapons can strike important enemy targets in a short time. With its penetrating playing method, it is likely to be used as a sharp tool to “kick the door” to carry out long-distance clearance of key areas and targets at the speed of “counting the seconds” and clear the obstacles for subsequent large-scale attacks. < / P > < p > there are three main operational modes. First, high-speed penetration, “straight fist” impact. The research shows that when the missile’s flight speed is above Mach 5-6, the speed alone is enough to achieve a very high penetration probability, effectively penetrate the existing operational defense systems of various countries, and destroy the enemy’s high-value targets. The second is the lateral detour, “hook boxing” swing. Some hypersonic missiles can fly in a “floating” mode or in a full range of orbit changing flight, bypass the enemy’s main interception clusters, open up a “safe corridor” and “lateral penetration channel” in the battlefield, and strike the key targets behind the enemy in a roundabout way. The third is the mixed formation, and the “lost track fist” hit hard. If hypersonic weapons and UAVs are grouped to form decoys and jammers array with a large number of distributed UAVs, it can effectively delay the time of being found by the enemy and greatly improve the probability of successful attack. < / P > < p > change the traditional attack and defense system. Hypersonic weapons can be launched out of the defense zone in a long distance, and can effectively kill the enemy without the need of troops. Because it is difficult to find, identify, judge and intercept, it is bound to break the balance of the existing attack and defense system, and become an important means to deter the enemy from launching operational attempts. < / P > < p > some hypersonic weapons fly at high altitude, which is difficult to find by existing detection methods. Its flight speed is beyond the threshold of most air defense and anti missile weapons, which makes it have few “natural enemies” at least for a certain period of time. At the same time, a considerable number of hypersonic weapons fly along non inertial trajectory, which makes it difficult for them to track stably, which makes many current countermeasures “powerless” in the face of it. Therefore, its use is bound to have a profound impact on the traditional force deployment, operation mode, anti missile system and operation support. < / P > < p > in addition, the emergence of hypersonic weapons is also greatly squeezing the response time of attack and defense, which puts forward higher requirements for commanders, especially the command system of the defense side. < / P > < p > greatly expand the battlefield space. With the development and application of hypersonic weapons, the combat airspace has been continuously expanded, gradually forming an integrated space and even a global battlefield space. First, the boundaries of the battlefield have become more blurred. Hypersonic weapons can strike targets within hundreds or thousands of meters in a few minutes, further blurring the boundaries between front and rear, and can achieve “close in front” fast and accurate strike against “distant” targets. Second, the operational area is larger. With the breakthrough of hypersonic weapons in endurance and speed limits, as well as its deep use of near space and atmosphere, once it is put into actual combat, both the attacker and the counter are bound to face a larger combat area, and some unused space in the past will also be in full swing. < / P > < p > in recent years, hypersonic missiles developed by some military powers have gradually stepped into the practical stage, and the research and development of hypersonic weapons is also gradually accelerating, and the trend of intelligence, limitation and diversification is becoming more and more obvious. < / P > < p > intelligent. As an important weapon to win the future battlefield, hypersonic weapon has unique aerodynamic shape, long flight distance and high technical requirements for navigation system. Theoretically, it may also be unexpected due to other factors. In this case, the introduction of intelligent technology has become an inevitable option. With the help of intelligent technology, hypersonic weapons can have the ability of self perception, self decision, self execution, self-learning, self adaptation and self promotion, and realize rapid decision-making and response, so as to give full play to the speed advantage of hypersonic weapons. At present, some countries have listed “artificial intelligence and hypersonic vehicle” as a priority military technology field in order to enhance the autonomous combat capability of hypersonic vehicle. < / P > < p > limit. The emergence of hypersonic weapons is the product of human beings’ constant pursuit of weapon performance limit. With the development and breakthrough of science and technology, the combat performance of hypersonic weapons will continue to break through the current limit. One is faster. In this regard, the development and improvement of scramjet is in the ascendant. Tests in some countries show that the scramjet can help the missile to achieve a speed below Mach 8 when using hydrocarbon fuel, while the missile can achieve a speed of Mach 6-25 when using liquid hydrogen fuel. It can be seen that every breakthrough in related technologies may refresh the maximum speed of hypersonic weapons. Second, the range and range are longer. In the range of hypersonic weapons, the situation of “the Yangtze River waves behind push the waves ahead” has been presented. The Russian “dagger” missile, which has been charged with the task of experimental combat duty, has a range of more than 1500 km, while the range of some other hypersonic weapons under development is no less than that of it. This has reserved space for the hypersonic weapons to “break records frequently”. < / P > < p > diversification. With the breakthrough of key technologies such as scramjet, glider, maneuver orbit change and artificial intelligence, hypersonic weapons show a strong development momentum and broad application prospects. First, the platform is more diversified. The platform used by hypersonic weapons will no longer be limited to aircraft and cruise missiles flying in the atmosphere. Some countries have put forward the idea that it is possible to break through the atmosphere and allow the carrying platform to travel freely between the earth’s surface and space. Some carrier platforms will be reusable. In this regard, some countries are stepping up research on relevant key technologies and have made some progress. Second, the load is more diversified. Hypersonic weapon is a combination of tactical application and strategic deterrence. It can be either conventional weapon or equipped with nuclear warhead, and becomes a part of strategic deterrence system. The new air breathing hypersonic weapon system will be able to carry more payloads and perform a variety of strike missions. In the future, it may become an effective missile in missile defense system to meet the requirements of intercepting incoming hypersonic weapons. < / P > < p > of course, it should be pointed out that the current research and development and use of hypersonic weapons are still in the “initial growth” stage. If we really want to have a subversive impact on the future war, we have a long way to go. There are still many “slopes” to climb and “barriers” to cross.