I’m a soldier Xiao Wang of a certain unit. I’m stationed on the plateau for the first time. Recently, the weather is getting colder and colder, the snow is heavy, the road is slippery, and the road traffic is more difficult. May I ask how to avoid or reduce the incidence of injuries and injuries when marching on the plateau in winter? < p > < p > LV Liyuan, director of General Surgery Department of the 950th Hospital of the Chinese people’s Liberation Army: in winter, roads accumulate ice and snow, dangerous and difficult sections increase, and some paths leading to mountain passes and key points are difficult to pass. Whether motorized or on foot, there are certain security risks. If not handled properly, accidents such as slipping, sprain, vehicle sideslip, rollover, and even falling off the subgrade and deep valley may occur. When officers and soldiers patrol and maneuver on the ridge line, mountain pass and other places, they may also encounter severe weather such as hail, wind and snow, fog, etc., which may lead to personal injury and equipment damage if they can’t cope well. In addition, in the process of military operations, elevation within a short period of time is similar to the situation of rushing into the plateau. If not well prepared for adaptation or disease prevention, it is easy to induce altitude reaction or acute altitude sickness. During the March, the road is rough, joints and muscles are in an unstable and tense state, energy and oxygen consumption increases, and the human body is extremely prone to fatigue. If it is not scientifically and effectively windproof and warm keeping, rest adjustment, it is easy to induce a cold. Therefore, in the winter plateau March, we should do well in preparations for the March, the protection in the March, and 3 aspects of adjustment after marching. < / P > < p > carry out disease prevention education. Many comrades in arms went to the plateau for the first time, although they completed the plateau acclimatization, they did not have the experience of plateau wintering, and they did not understand the adverse effects of the harsh natural environment on human function and equipment performance. Before the March, the army health personnel can carry out health and disease prevention education for the officers and soldiers on the plateau March. The unit can learn from the experience of border troops stationed at high altitude for winter, compile an easy to understand common sense Manual of health and disease prevention for marching on high altitude, and form several mutual aid groups on the basis of classes and groups to arrange the new and old soldiers alternately. Before departure, officers and soldiers should make personal preparations and check the protective materials. < / P > < p > collect protective equipment. When marching on foot, officers and soldiers should be equipped with cold and warm materials, and be well protected from head to foot. Prepare anti snow blind goggles, anti fall stick, anti accident rescue rope, engineer shovel, etc., as well as damp proof mat, sleeping bag, individual tent and other camping thermal insulation facilities, hot water and dry food. It’s best to wear old, loose fitting boots and socks when marching. Keep feet dry, and those who are prone to sweat or sweat feet should have underwear, socks, insoles and dry towel to wipe sweat. During the motorized March, it is necessary to start the vehicle at low temperature and refit the device as soon as possible, and replace the attached oil and oil to adapt to the ultra-low temperature, so as to ensure that the vehicle can start at any time. If you travel by truck, you should add modified seats and seat belts in the car. The car should be covered with tarpaulin, and the air leakage should be filled with asbestos strips to prevent wind and keep warm. The unit shall have overall protective measures during mobile March, assign special personnel to be responsible for rescue and repair work, formulate emergency plan, select rescue team, equip necessary first-aid equipment and drugs, and keep high altitude disease prevention and control drugs. < / P > < p > tissue preconditioning. When officers and soldiers arrive at the plateau for the first time, the symptoms of headache, dizziness, palpitation, shortness of breath, chest tightness, etc. due to lack of oxygen do not need treatment, and generally disappear in about 7 days; if they are engaged in mild military operation for about 1 month, it means that they have reached the preliminary acclimatization state; if they are engaged in heavy military operation for more than 6 months, it means that they have reached the complete acclimatization state. The altitude difference of March should not exceed 1000 meters per day, which can effectively reduce the altitude reaction and the incidence of altitude sickness. When the unit moves to high altitude areas, it can organize officers and soldiers to carry out hypoxia tolerance training 1-2 weeks in advance, and carry out military sports training moderately, so as to improve the body’s hypoxia tolerance and speed up the process of plateau acclimatization. < / P > < p > officers and soldiers should pay attention to the following points in the process of marching on the plateau: when marching on foot, they should accurately choose the route, and should not blindly cross glaciers, ice Gorges or mountain streams without waterproof equipment; in principle, they should choose the appropriate route according to their physical consumption. They should not cross the country when there is a road, not wade when there is a bridge, rather than climb the slope when there is a bridge, and should not blindly climb mountains and cliffs to prevent excessive physical consumption High altitude reaction was induced by fatigue. The belt and shoelace should be properly tightened to keep breathing smooth and peripheral blood circulation smooth. When the sand, ice and snow enter the shoes and boots or the socks are wrinkled during the March, clean up the foreign matters in time and adjust the shoes and socks to avoid grinding out foot blisters. If foot blisters appear in officers and soldiers, they should be disinfected with Iodophor cotton swab, and then they should use suture needle or sterilized sewing needle or suture line for “U” shaped puncture drainage. When traveling in the army, strictly abide by the winter traffic safety regulations, strictly prohibit speeding, mixed loading of people and goods; all vehicles are equipped with safety officers to remind the passengers to fasten their seat belts; when passing through dangerous and difficult road sections, ice and snow roads, the passengers are best to walk to reduce the risk; when taking tracked and wheeled combat vehicles for patrol and maneuver, they are not allowed to sit on the surface of the car body, and are strictly prohibited to overload passengers and materials Overload loading; battery pack, ammunition box and other cabin equipment and other carry on materials should be fixed to prevent bumps on the road causing scratches, bumps, crush injuries, etc. Rest at the right time when marching, replenish energy and restore physical strength. In general, the hikers in mountainous areas rest for about 10 minutes every hour, and the motorists rest every 2 hours to organize the passengers to get off the train to prevent frostbite due to poor blood circulation at the extremities. < / P > < p > after arriving at the camp, officers and soldiers can burn hot water to wash their face and feet to relieve fatigue and recover their physical strength, if possible; it is better to supply self heating food which is easy to carry, easy to process, abundant in heat and reasonable in nutrition when they have a big rest on the way of marching; when camping, officers and soldiers should eat hot food rich in high sugar and high-quality protein, and supplement water; smoking and drinking are forbidden to reduce smoking and drinking The body has nothing to do with oxygen consumption; scientific camp should be set up to ensure the quality of sleep. If conditions permit, pure oxygen can be inhaled at low flow before going to bed; health personnel should do a good job in health inspection, check the patients as soon as possible, actively and properly deal with all kinds of injuries, and send the patients with serious conditions to the hospital for treatment in time.