“In the past 30 years, the height of 19-year-old boys in China has grown the fastest in the world, with an average height increase of 8 cm to 175.7 cm; the height ranking has risen from 150th in 1985 to 65th in 2019. At the same time, China’s 19-year-old girl’s height growth was the third in the world, with an average height increase of 6cm to 163.5cm, and the global ranking of average height rose from 129th to 54th This is the latest research results of Imperial College London published in the authoritative medical journal the lancet recently. The study also showed that China and South Korea were the countries with the largest increase in average height of children in the past 35 years. In 2019, the average height of 19-year-old men and women in China exceeds that of South Korea, making China the tallest country in East Asia. Ma Jun, a professor at the Institute of child and adolescent health, School of public health, Peking University, once surveyed the height of Chinese students aged 7-18 from 1985 to 2005. It was found that the average growth rates of the 50th percentile height of urban male, rural male, urban female and rural female were 3.1, 3.5, 2.2 and 2.8cm, respectively, and 2.0, 2.3, 1.3 and 1.7cm in the 10 years from 1995 to 2005, respectively. The growth level of Chinese children and adolescents presents a rapid and comprehensive growth trend. Ma Jun believes that the trend of height growth of children and adolescents in China is related to the improvement of social and economic conditions after China’s reform and opening up, the improvement of nutritional status of children and adolescents, the effective prevention and control of common diseases affecting the health of children and adolescents, and the long-term acceleration of growth and development of children and adolescents. Chi Jinghan, a newborn pediatrician at the seventh medical center of the PLA General Hospital, said that there are many factors affecting height, such as genetic, nutritional, and mental factors. According to research, 75% of the final height of the human body depends on heredity. In other words, in general, parents are tall, children are tall; parents are short, children are short. However, parents’ height is not the only factor affecting their children’s height, and the influence of external factors, i.e. environmental conditions, on height should not be ignored. Chi Jinghan reminded that there are two most important periods for children’s growth and development: one is under three years old, especially in the first three months of one year old, and the growth rate is the sum of the last nine months. The other is adolescence, during which some children can grow 10-14 cm a year. Parents should pay special attention to grasp these two critical periods. Children should keep up with nutrition and get enough sleep. < / P > < p > in addition to heredity, what external factors affect height? Chi said sleep and nutrition are key for children. In addition, height and sexual maturity, physical exercise, mental relaxation and other external factors are also related. Good sleep can help children. “Puberty is the period when growth hormone and androgen secretion are most vigorous. So young people should ensure adequate sleep, at least 8 hours of sleep every night Chi Jinghan said that because the endocrine hormones controlling height mainly include auxin, luteinizing hormone and sex hormone secreted by the pituitary gland, among which growth hormone has the most significant effect. Some studies have found that when children sleep for one hour, the secretion of growth hormone is 5-7 times more than that in the daytime, and the secretion of sex hormone and luteinizing hormone is also very strong. Therefore, height is closely related to sleep. < / P > < p > the later the sexual maturity, the higher the child’s growth. Children’s mature age will also affect height. Generally speaking, children who grow up earlier will reach the end point faster; those who happen later will also reach the end point later. When precocious children no longer grow tall, late maturing children are still growing tall, so late maturing children will eventually be taller. The fastest growth of girls’ height is in pre puberty, which can reach 7-8 cm in the year before menarche; the peak period of boys’ height growth is in the first year of puberty, and the height increase can reach 10-12 cm when they are 13-14 years old. < / P > < p > exercise is very important for height growth. Physical exercise can promote the secretion of growth hormone, strengthen the blood supply of bone cells and promote the proliferation of epiphyseal cartilage. According to research, the growth hormone secretion will increase significantly after exercise. At the same time, exercise can also exercise muscles, bones, make the body more robust. Chi Jinghan believes that in the development period of children and adolescents, we must have sufficient physical exercise, maintain a good mood and healthy lifestyle. Children who have suffered severe mental trauma will grow slowly or even stagnate. Because sadness and depression will not only make children vulnerable to various diseases, but also affect their growth and development, and even appear “premature aging”. It is generally believed that the heritability of height is as high as 70% ~ 80%. However, a study in China in 2004 estimated that the heritability of height is only 65%, and 35% of the acquired environmental factors make it possible for children’s height to continue to grow. Liu Chang’e, director of the Nutrition Department of the seventh medical center of the PLA General Hospital, said that in addition to genetics, protein, vitamins and minerals are indispensable nutrients for children’s height development, and play an important role in promoting and ensuring height growth. < / P > < p > protein is particularly important for children’s growth and development. In a sense, height is a pile of nutrients. As we all know, protein is an important part of all cells and tissues of the human body, and it is also the necessary nutrition for bones. If food intake can provide enough 8 kinds of amino acids necessary for human body, protein synthesis can be accelerated, which is conducive to the growth and development of tissues and organs of the whole body, especially the growth and development of bone and iliac cartilage. The experiment on preschool children showed that the height and weight of the experimental group with 0.5 g lysine per meal was significantly higher than that of other children. Protein rich foods include dairy products, lean meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nuts and beans. < / P > < p > long children should not ignore vitamins. To deposit calcium in bones and teeth, vitamin D must be involved. Vitamin D regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism and promotes bone growth; vitamin A participates in important processes such as embryonic development, visual function, respiratory diseases, children’s growth and immune regulation; iron, selenium and vitamin E can directly participate in biological oxidation process and promote normal development of immune system. Only a balanced, appropriate and diverse diet can we get comprehensive, balanced and rich nutrients. How to achieve a balanced diet? Liu Chang’e suggested: 1.0-6-month-old infants should adhere to pure breast-feeding and feed according to their needs; 7-24-month-old infants should ensure the amount of milk and complementary food, and gradually diversify their food. Preschool children should focus on training children to eat regularly, encourage them to drink milk every day, choose healthy and nutritious snacks, and avoid sugary drinks and high-fat fried food. < p > < p > 3. For school-age children and adolescents, three meals should be reasonable and regular, and healthy eating behaviors should be cultivated; food types, sources and colors should be rich and diverse, no less than 12 kinds of food every day, no picky food, partial food, meat and vegetable collocation should be avoided; high quality protein, including milk, fish, meat, eggs, beans and nuts, should be supplemented; fresh vegetables and fruits should be added, more than 5 kinds per day, with a good complexion Rich, dark vegetables account for more than half, often eat bacteria and algae; ensure staple food and energy intake, staple food coarse grain reasonable collocation. < / P > < p > over nutrition can also cause children’s height deficiency. Liu Chang’e specially pointed out that many parents mistakenly believe that their children can grow tall by eating more and eating better. They constantly let their children eat too much and even buy a lot of nutrition and health care products for their children. She reminded that blind nutrition supplement to children can not help children to grow taller, but may lead to obesity and precocious puberty due to excessive nutrition, which will eventually lead to short stature. Is the height of the child normal? Liu Yi, deputy chief physician of Pediatrics, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of traditional Chinese medicine, pointed out that children’s height growth is not uniform. The younger the child is, the faster the growth is. Children under one year old grow fastest. The average length of a newborn is 50cm at birth, and the fastest growth is about 25cm in the first year after birth, and 12cm in the first three months. In the second year, the growth rate slowed down, about 10 cm, that is, when the child was 2 years old, he was about 85 cm long. From 2 years old to adolescence, the height increased steadily, 6-7 cm per year, at least not less than 5 cm. In puberty, the second peak of height growth appeared, and the growth rate was about twice that of school age, lasting for 2-3 years. Girls started two years earlier than boys. < p > < p > Liu Yi suggested that parents should regularly do physical examination for their children, and make records, and record their children’s height and weight every 3-6 months to see how much their children’s height and weight have increased each year. < / P > < p > is there a problem with children who are not tall? Some parents feel that their children are shorter than their peers. Are they worried about “dwarfism”? Short stature is defined as two standard deviations or below the third percentile of the average height of the normal population compared with the height of individuals of the same race, sex and age. Liu Yi reminded that the following situations may indicate that children’s growth is slow: ① children’s height growth is less than 7cm per year before they are 2 years old; ② the height growth from 5 years old to puberty is less than 5cm a year; ③ the height growth of puberty is less than 6cm per year. If it is found that the child has the above situation, it is recommended to take the child to the hospital for medical treatment, do standardized physical examination, nutritional assessment, genetic assessment, thyroid function assessment and bone age assessment, so as to further clarify the diagnosis, early intervention, and do not miss the best growth period of the child. Is growth hormone necessary for dwarfism? There are many causes of dwarfism, but the lack or deficiency of growth hormone is only one reason. There are also familial dwarfism, growth hormone insensitivity, skeletal dysplasia and some endocrine diseases. We should take corresponding treatment according to different causes. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that the kidney dominates the bone, which is the congenital foundation; the spleen dominates the muscles and limbs, which is the acquired foundation. Strengthening the spleen and tonifying the kidney can promote the growth of children’s bones and muscles. Clinically, the children are on the low side, most of them belong to marginal short stature. For these children, we can carry out the intervention treatment of traditional Chinese medicine in the early stage. In addition, it is suggested that parents should start with daily maintenance: 1. Ensure children’s adequate sleep and strengthen spring sports to promote their growth. 2. Pay attention to the balanced nutrition and improve the nutritional status of children. 3. It is not suitable for children to eat supplements to avoid stimulating children’s early development.